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FPGA Loadable Code Generator for Icarus Verilog


  Copyright 2001 Stephen Williams
  $Id: fpga.txt,v 1.12 2005/09/19 21:45:36 steve Exp $

The FPGA code generator supports a variety of FPGA devices, writing
XNF or EDIF depending on the target. You can select the architecture
of the device, and the detailed part name. The architecture is used to
select library primitives, and the detailed part name is written into
the generated file for the use of downstream tools.


The code generator is invoked with the -tfpga flag to iverilog. It
understands the part= and the arch= parameters, which can be set with
the -p flag of iverilog:

	iverilog -parch=virtex -ppart=v50-pq240-6 -tfpga foo.vl

This example selects the Virtex architecture, and give the detailed
part number as v50-pq240-6. The output is written into a.out unless a
different output file is specified with the -o flag.

The following is a list of architecture types that this code generator

* arch=lpm

This is a device independent format, where the gates are device types
as defined by the LPM 2 1 0 specification. Some backend tools may take
this format, or users may write interface libraries to connect these
netlists to the device in question.

* arch=generic-edif (obsolete)

This is generic EDIF code. It doesn't necessarily work because the
external library is not available to the code generator. But, what it
does is generate generic style gates that a portability library can
map to target gates if desired.

* arch=generic-xnf (obsolete)

If this is selected, then the output is formatted as an XNF file,
suitable for most any type of device. The devices that it emits
are generic devices from the unified library. Some devices are macros,
you may need to further resolve the generated XNF to get working
code for your part.

* arch=virtex

If this is selected, then the output is formatted as an EDIF 200 file,
suitable for Virtex class devices. This is supposed to know that you
are targeting a Virtex part, so can generate primitives instead of
using external macros. It includes the VIRTEX internal library, and
should work properly for any Virtex part.

* arch=virtex2

If this is selected, then the output is EDIF 2 0 0 suitable for
Virtex-II and Virtex-II Pro devices. It uses the VIRTEX2 library, but
is very similar to the Virtex target.


  NOTE: As parts are moved over to EDIF format, XNF support will be
  phased out. Current Xilinx implementation tools will accept EDIF
  format files even for the older parts, and non-Xilinx implementation
  tools accept nothing else.

When the output format is XNF, the code generator will generate "SIG"
records for the signals that are ports of the root module. The name is
declared as an external pin that this macro makes available.

The name given to the macro pin is generated from the base name of the
signal. If the signal is one bit wide, then the pin name is exactly
the module port name. If the port is a vector, then the pin number is
given as a vector. For example, the module:

	module main(out, in);
	    output out;
	    input [2:0] in;

leads to these SIG, records:

	SIG, main/out, PIN=out
	SIG, main/in<2>, PIN=in2
	SIG, main/in<1>, PIN=in1
	SIG, main/in<0>, PIN=in0


The EDIF format is more explicit about the interface into an EDIF
file. The code generator uses that control to generate an explicit
interface definition into the design. (This is *not* the same as the
PADS of a part.) The generated EDIF interface section contains port
definitions, including the proper direction marks.

With the (rename ...) s-exp in EDIF, it is possible to assign
arbitrary text to port names. The EDIF code generator therefore does
not resort to the mangling that is needed for the XNF target. The base
name of the signal that is an input or output is used as the name of
the port, complete with the proper case.

However, since the ports are single bit ports, the name of vectors
includes the string "[0]" where the number is the bit number. For
example, the module:

	module main(out, in);
	    output out;
	    input [2:0] in;

creates these ports:

	out   OUTPUT
	in[0] INPUT
	in[1] INPUT
	in[2] INPUT

Target tools, including Xilinx Foundation tools, understand the []
characters in the name and recollect the signals into a proper bus
when presenting the vector to the user.


The ports of a root module may be assigned to specific pins, or to a
generic pad. If a signal (that is a port) has a PAD attribute, then
the value of that attribute is a list of locations, one for each bit
of the signal, that specifies the pin for each bit of the signal. For

	module main( (* PAD = "P10" *)         output out,
		     (* PAD = "P20,P21,P22" *) input [2:0] in);



In this example, port ``out'' is assigned to pin 10, and port ``in''
is assigned to pins 20-22. If the architecture supports it, a pin
number of 0 means let the back end tools choose a pin. The format of
the pin number depends on the architecture family being targeted, so
for example Xilinx family devices take the name that is associated
with the "LOC" attribute.

NOTE: If a module port is assigned to a pin (and therefore attached to
a PAD) then it is *not* connected to a port of the EDIF file. This is
because the PAD (and possibly IBUF or OBUF) would become an extra
driver to the port. An error.


The code generator supports the "cellref" attribute attached to logic
devices to cause specific device types be generated, instead of the
usual device that the code generator might generate. For example, to
get a clock buffer out of a Verilog buf:

	buf my_gbuf(out, in);
	$attribute(my_buf, "cellref", "GBUF:O,I");

The "cellref" attribute tells the code generator to use the given
cell. The syntax of the value is:

	<cell type>:<pin name>,...

The cell type is the name of the library part to use. The pin names
are the names of the type in the library, in the order that the logic
device pins are connected.


Compile a single-file design with command line tools like so:

	% iverilog -parch=virtex -o foo.edf foo.vl
	% edif2ngd foo.edf
	% ngdbuild -p v50-pq240 foo.ngd
	% map -o map.ncd foo.ngd
	% par -w map.ncd foo.ncd

$Log: fpga.txt,v $
Revision 1.12  2005/09/19 21:45:36  steve
 Spelling patches from Larry.

Revision 1.11  2003/08/07 05:17:34  steve
 Add arch=lpm to the documentation.

Revision 1.10  2003/07/04 03:57:19  steve
 Allow attributes on Verilog 2001 port declarations.

Revision 1.9  2003/07/04 01:08:03  steve
 PAD attribute can be used to assign pins.

Revision 1.8  2003/07/02 00:26:49  steve
 Fix spelling of part= flag.

Revision 1.7  2003/03/24 02:28:38  steve
 Document the virtex2 architecture.

Revision 1.6  2003/03/24 00:47:54  steve
 Add new virtex2 architecture family, and
 also the new edif.h EDIF management functions.

Revision 1.5  2002/04/30 04:26:42  steve
 Spelling errors.

Revision 1.4  2001/09/16 22:26:47  steve
 Support the cellref attribute.

Revision 1.3  2001/09/16 01:48:16  steve
 Suppor the PAD attribute on signals.

Revision 1.2  2001/09/06 04:28:40  steve
 Separate the virtex and generic-edif code generators.

Revision 1.1  2001/09/02 23:58:49  steve
 Add documentation for the code generator.
geda/igarus_fpga_lcg.txt · Last modified: 2012/02/20 15:14 (external edit)